Evolutionary Divergence of Phosphorylation to Regulate Interactive Protein Networks in Lower and Higher Species


The phosphorylation of proteins affects their functions in extensively documented circumstances. However, the role of phosphorylation in many interactive networks of proteins remains very elusive due to the experimental limits of exploring the transient interaction in a large complex of assembled proteins induced by stimulation. Previous studies have suggested that phosphorylation is a recent evolutionary process that differently regulates ortholog proteins in numerous lineages of living organisms to create new functions. Despite the fact that numerous phospho-proteins have been compared between species, little is known about the organization of the full phospho-proteome, the role of phosphorylation to orchestrate large interactive networks of proteins, and the intertwined phospho-landscape in these networks. In this report, we aimed to investigate the acquired role of phosphate addition in the phenomenon of protein networking in different orders of living organisms. Our data highlighted the acquired status of phosphorylation in organizing large, connected assemblages in Homo sapiens. The protein networking guided by phosphorylation turned out to be prominent in humans, chaotic in yeast, and weak in flies. Furthermore, the molecular functions of GO annotation enrichment regulated by phosphorylation were found to be drastically different between flies, yeast, and humans, suggesting an evolutionary drift specific to each species.

International Journal of Molecular Sciences